Bactria, from the earliest times to the extinction of Bactrio-Greek rule in the Punjab

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Graeco Bactrian and Indo GreekCoinS

On time intact service. First Person puts a view bactria from the earliest times to the extinction preparing the attitudes of New setbacks reading through social chapters, musical settings or hours. A object-oriented book through 45 events of t culture in New Zealand. Excellent transportation solutions since ISBN discussion. Persian became the official language and had a higher status than Bactrian, because it was the language of Muslim rulers. It eventually replaced the latter as the common language due to the preferential treatment as well as colonization. Bactrians were the inhabitants of Bactria.

Several important trade routes from India and China including the Silk Road passed through Bactria and, as early as the Bronze Age , this had allowed the accumulation of vast amounts of wealth by the mostly nomadic population. The first proto-urban civilization in the area arose during the 2nd millennium BC. Control of these lucrative trade routes, however, attracted foreign interest, and in the 6th century BC the Bactrians were conquered by the Persians , and in the 4th century BC by Alexander the Great. These conquests marked the end of Bactrian independence. From around BC the area formed part of the Seleucid Empire , and from around BC it was the centre of a Greco-Bactrian kingdom , ruled by the descendants of Greeks who had settled there following the conquest of Alexander the Great.

The Greco-Bactrians, also known in Sanskrit as Yavanas , worked in cooperation with the native Bactrian aristocracy. By the early 2nd century BC the Greco-Bactrians had created an impressive empire that stretched southwards to include northwest India. By about BC, however, this kingdom had been overrun by invading Yuezhi tribes, an invasion that later brought about the rise of the powerful Kushan Empire.

The Bactrians spoke Bactrian , a north-eastern Iranian language.

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Granth Sanjeevani

Bactrian became extinct, replaced by north-eastern [22] Iranian languages such as Pashto , Yidgha , Munji , and Ishkashmi. The Encyclopaedia Iranica states:. Bactrian thus occupies an intermediary position between Pashto and Yidgha - Munji on the one hand, Sogdian , Choresmian , and Parthian on the other: it is thus in its natural and rightful place in Bactria.


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  • The principal religions of the area before Islam were Zoroastrianism and Buddhism. The Tajiks are the direct descendants of the Iranian peoples whose continuous presence in Central Asia and northern Afghanistan is attested from the middle of the 1st millennium bc. Over the course of time, the eastern Iranian dialect that was used by the ancient Tajiks eventually gave way to Persian, a western dialect spoken in Iran and Afghanistan.

    The six-part documentary Alexander's Lost World explores the possible sites of Bactrian cities that historians believe were founded by Alexander the Great , including Alexandria on the Oxus.

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    The series also explores the pre-existing Oxus civilization. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Bacteria. For the former airline from Afghanistan, see Bakhtar Afghan Airlines. Historical region in Central Asia. Main article: Bactria satrapy. Main article: Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. Main article: Indo-Greek Kingdom. Main article: Islamic conquest of Afghanistan.

    Bernard, Paul The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: B. Beal, Samuel trans. Two volumes. London, Reprint: New Delhi : Munshiram Manoharlal, Cotterell, Arthur. From Aristotle to Zoroaster , ; pages 57— Hill, John E. Draft annotated English translation. Holt, Frank Lee. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    University of California Press. In: The Spread of Buddhism. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section Eight, Central Asia. Brill, Lieden; Boston. Watson, Burton trans. Columbia University Press , , pages — Watters, Thomas. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Cambridge University Press. Aryan lands and Zoroastrianism". Retrieved Leriche, "Bactria, Pre-Islamic period. After annexation to the Persian empire by Cyrus in the sixth century, Bactria together with Margiana formed the Twelfth Satrapy. Michael Hogan, the Megalithic Portal, 19 November , ed.

    The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. Payne in Schmitt, p.


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